What is Paper Battery

Electronic devices and gadgets require an influence supply (either AC or DC), this power supply took from the mains power supply or the electrical batteries. The battery defined as a device comprised of (one or more) electrochemical cells. The energy of the electrochemical cells converted into electricity. Supported different criteria batteries now classify into various types such supported rechargeable conditions they’re classified as rechargeable batteries and non-rechargeable batteries. The advancement in technology developed environmentally friendly and more flexible batteries like paper batteries. During this article, allow us to discuss paper battery construction and dealing. But, initially, we need to know about paper batteries.

Paper Battery


A paper battery may be a thin, flexible energy production and memory device that’s create by combining carbon nanotubes with a standard sheet of cellulose-based paper. Additionally, to being disposable, paper batteries could also be fold, cut, or otherwise shaped for various applications with none loss of integrity or efficiency. It’s a tool that will operate both as a capacitor and A battery.

Scientists have developed batteries of size slightly larger than a postal stamp which will produce energy that’s enough to illuminate a little bulb. These are the facility source to next-generation electronic devices, medical devices, pacemakers, hybrid vehicles, etc.

Robert Linhardt from Rensselaer polytechnic invented the first concept of paper batteries a few decades ago. He layered cellulose (paper) on conductive carbon nanotubes. albeit the combined structure was sturdy enough to create batteries, it fell apart whenever it will fix. A Stanford University team led by Professor Yi Cui found an answer to the matter.

construction of paper battery

The device paper battery is made by combining carbon nanotubes with a sheet of cellulose-based paper. This device combines two discrete components as mentioned.

➨Paper Battery = Carbon Nanotubes + Paper (Cellulose)


paper battery construction

Cellulose is a complex organic substance. This is often available in paper also as pulp. This substance isn’t digestible by the citizenry.
A Carbon NanoTubes is an extremely tiny cylinder  from create single sheet of carbon atoms rolled into a single tiny cylinder. they’re stronger than steel. They conduct better compare to any semiconductors. they will be used as single-walled or multi-walled.

  •  carbon nanotubes (CNT) acts as cathode
  •  Lithium metal (Li+) acts as anode
  •  Electrolytes with bio-electrolytes eg. sweat, blood and urine.
  •  cellulose based paper acts as separator

carbon nanotubes

Following steps are followed during the development of paper battery:

1. The primary method involves fabricating zinc and manganese dioxide-based cathode and anode. The batteries stats printing on paper using standard silk screen press.
This paper infuses  aligned carbon nanotubes which uses as an electrode. The paper is dippin during a solution of ionic liquid which acts because of the electrolyte.

2. The second method may be a bit complex and involves growing nanotubes on a silicon substrate. The gaps within the matrix are then crammed with cellulose and once the matrix is dried, the mixture of cellulose and nanotubes is peeled off. Then the sheets of paper consist of carbon nanotubes are formed. Two such sheets are combined to make an excellent capacitor with an ionic liquid-like human blood, sweat, or urine getting used as an electrolyte.

3. The third method is simple and constructed in a laboratory. Over an oblong sheet of paper coated with an ionic solution, it will spread a specially formulated ink of carbon nanotubes. After that the skinny film of the lithium is laminate on the opposite side of the paper and connect  an aluminum rods to hold current between the 2 electrodes.

Working of Paper Battery

working of paper battery

Internal operation of paper batteries is analogous thereto of conventional batteries with each battery generating about 1.5V.

If we talk about Normal Batteries, In this battery the positively charged particles called ions and the (opposite partial) negatively charged particles called electrons move between positive electrodes and a negative electrode are the anode (+ve) and cathode(-ve).

Current flows as electrons are due anode to the cathode through the conductor, since the electrolyte is an insulator and doesn’t provide a free path for electrons to travel.

Similarly, in some paper batteries, carbon nanotubes act as a cathode, the metal is that the anode and paper is that the separator. A chemical reaction between metal and electrolyte leads to the production of ions whereas the reaction between carbon and electrolyte leads to the production of electrons. These electrons are due to the cathode to the anode through the external circuit.

You can also check capsule endoscopy

Application of Paper Battery

Its become popular thanks to its flexible and ultra thin energy storage structure.

paper battery application

These are the appliance of paper battery-:


2.RFID tag

3.Micro Processor

4.Thin Display

5.Functional Card

6.Medical Care

Disadvantages of Paper Battery

1.expensive because its made of nanotubes.

2.low storage of energy

3.replacing old batteries result wastage of old electronics goods creating e-wastages.


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